y 1862, both sides had 1 million men in uniform across a 1000 mile battle front ranging from Manassas, Virginia to Missouri. Battles had taken a horrendous toll in human lives on both sides. Lincoln and his Cabinet were frustrated by the slow pace of the war and with Gen. George B. McClellan who apparently did not want to engage the enemy. The eventual attack on the Confederate capital, Richmond - by transporting Union troops by boat to the peninsula southeast of Confederate capital - was met by stiff resistance from a force one-tenth its size. McClellan dug in at Yorktown and the battle dragged on. Mranwhile, the South had a new weapon in the form of the Merrimack, the first ironclad ship far more powerful that anything the North had immediately available but they eventually responded with the Monitor, which won the epic battle of iron ships when the Merrimack withdrew. In the West, Union Gen. U.S. Grant won two crucial victories and enhanced his reputation as well by demanding unconditional surrender. Although the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862 resulted in a Union victory, that was certainly not obvious at the end of the first day. Adm. David Farragut went down the Mississippi and claimed New Orleans, splitting the Confederacy in two.

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